3D printer creating a detailed model of a house, symbolizing innovation in construction technology.

How is 3D Printing Driving Sustainable Construction Practices?

Greystar employee Henry Emuwawon
Written by Henry Emuwawon
portrait of smiling person
Edited by Sarah Claire Eleazer
Innovation January 24, 2024

Traditional construction methods have been used worldwide for building homes and infrastructure, but they often have limitations in cost, time, and flexibility. Enter 3D printing technology, a ground-breaking approach reshaping the construction industry. 

According to Allied Market Research, the global 3D printing construction market is set to rise significantly from $1.4 billion in 2021 to an estimated $750.8 billion by 2031. This surge marks a new era in construction methods, promising significant advancements, and a complete overhaul of how we create buildings. It's not just about the numbers; this rapid rise signifies a major shift in how we imagine, plan, and build structures.


Understanding 3D Printing in Construction

In construction, 3D printing involves a layer-by-layer deposition of materials, typically concrete or other specialized mixes, to build entire structures or specific components. This technology encompasses various techniques, such as Contour Crafting and robotic arm-based printing, each tailored to meet specific development needs. 

Benefits include faster timelines, cost-effectiveness through reduced labor, and the capacity to realize intricate and custom designs that were once impractical.


A robotic arm 3D printing a concrete structure in a star-shaped layer pattern at a construction site.

Image Source: JCDA

Applications & Innovations

A multitude of groundbreaking projects worldwide showcase the potential of 3D printing in this industry, offering a beacon of hope for affordable housing solutions and enabling faster, more cost-effective methods to address housing shortages, especially in emerging economies. Explore some noteworthy projects across the globe:

Texas: ICON, a construction technology company, collaborated with non-profit organization, New Story, to build 3D-printed homes in a community in Austin, Texas. These homes, created using a proprietary 3D printing technology called the Vulcan printer, illustrate the feasibility of rapid and affordable builds, with the ability to print the concrete components of an average-sized home within 24 hours.


Modern open-plan living room with a leather sofa, contemporary furniture, and large sliding doors leading to an outdoor patio.

Image Source: ICON


Mexico: ICON expanded their innovative approach by partnering with ÉCHALE, a non-profit organization in Mexico, to create a community of 3D-printed homes. This initiative addresses housing challenges in underserved areas by leveraging 3D printing to construct affordable and resilient homes. 

The project demonstrates the scalability and adaptability of this technology in addressing housing needs, emphasizing its potential impact on improving living conditions globally.


Exterior view of a 3D-printed home with a terracotta tiled roof and potted plants decorating the front patio.

Image Source: ICON


The Netherlands: This 3D-printed bike bridge is a remarkable project located in Gemert, a town in the southern part of the Netherlands. It was created in 2017 through a collaboration between the Eindhoven University of Technology, BAM Infra, and many other partners.


A cyclist in motion blur crossing a newly constructed 3D-printed concrete bridge with orange railings.

Image Source: Bart Maat/AFP via Getty Images


China: In 2019, Shanghai revealed a pedestrian bridge built with 3D printing technology. This innovative structure combined reinforced concrete with 3D-printed elements, showcasing the capability of additive manufacturing in crafting resilient infrastructure.


A unique 3D-printed pedestrian bridge with wavy contours and textured surfaces in an urban setting.

Image Source: JCDA


Impact on Development & Sustainability

Reduced Material Waste: 3D printing significantly reduces material waste by using only the necessary amounts of materials, unlike traditional construction, which often generates excess waste during the building process. According to a study cited by Fortex, 3D printing can reduce material consumption by 30-60% compared to other methods.

Sustainable Housing in Developing Countries: In areas with housing shortages, such as rural regions in Latin America and Africa, 3D printing offers a solution for creating affordable and sustainable housing. Organizations like New Story and ICON have initiated projects to build low-cost, 3D-printed homes, addressing housing crises and promoting sustainable development.


Close-up of a 3D printer constructing layered concrete walls in an outdoor setting with greenery in the background.

Future Challenges

Regulatory Hurdles: One significant challenge facing the widespread adoption of 3D printing in construction involves regulatory frameworks. Governments and regulatory bodies need time to adapt and create standards that accommodate this innovative method while ensuring safety and compliance.

Material Development and Scalability: Developing specialized materials suitable for 3D printing, optimizing their properties for construction purposes, and scaling up production are ongoing challenges. Material scientists and research teams are partnering to pioneer advanced materials tailored explicitly for 3D printing, with a primary focus on enhancing durability, strength, and cost-effectiveness in the process.


Focused engineer examining a 3D printed orange model with precision on a 3D printer in a laboratory setting.

The rise of 3D printing in construction is a major milestone for the industry. Its substantial influence on cost-effectiveness, sustainability, and innovative design is undeniable. As technology progresses and obstacles are resolved, integrating 3D printing into traditional construction seems inevitable.

Embracing this technology promises a future where buildings are not just structures but testaments to innovation, sustainability, and accessibility for all.

Discover more on the Greystar blog, where we cover topics like augmented reality, AI chatbots, and more.


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